Working and invested capital

Working and invested capital

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In the contemporary business world, working and invested capital are among the most important elements that govern the success or failure of any project or company, as they are the driving force and vital blood of business as they combine financial, material, and human resources to achieve and develop the company’s goals. Understanding the importance of these two concepts meant understanding the key to business success in a world characterized by intense competition and rapid change. Working capital reflects the company’s actual ability to finance its daily activities, such as purchasing raw materials, paying salaries and wages, and financing the sales cycle, while invested capital is the backbone of the company’s growth and expansion, as it allows it to benefit from new opportunities and long-term investments.

Working and invested capital 

What is the definition of working capital?

It is an important concept in the financial field, reflects the financial and operational status of the company, and consists of current assets that can be converted into cash relatively quickly, such as cash, accounts receivable, and inventory. At the same time, working capital also includes the organization’s obligations in the short term, such as debts owed to suppliers, salaries, and wages owed to employees.

It also reflects the operational capacity and financial efficiency of the company. When it is positive, it reflects that the company is able to meet its outstanding obligations and manage its operational activities efficiently. Therefore, positive working capital is a positive sign of the company’s economic strength and its ability to withstand financial challenges.

What is invested capital?

It is a term that refers to the funds that investors provide to companies or institutions by purchasing stocks, bonds, or providing loans to them. It consists of funds collected from investors who bear the risks of investing in the company or institution with the aim of achieving a financial return.

Components of invested capital include securities, such as stocks and bonds, with which ownership shares in the company are purchased, or rights to accrue income and assets. Moreover, long-term discounts, such as debt obligations and capital leases, are counted as part of the invested capital. .

What is the difference between working capital and invested capital?

Working and invested capital are important concepts in the financial and economic fields, as each of them refers to different sources of financing that contribute to the success of companies and institutions, but they have differences in nature and purpose, so let us get to know the main differences between them through this table:

The differences Working capital Invested capital
the purpose It is used to finance daily activities and meet short-term obligations. It is used to acquire long-term assets and improve the company’s long-term potential.
Source It can be financed through the company’s current revenues or through borrowing from banks and financial institutions. It is usually financed by issuing new shares, using accumulated profits, or borrowing in other ways.
Benefit Contributes to the operation of the company and meeting its daily needs. It contributes to expanding the company’s activity and achieving long-term growth.
the value Working capital focuses on short-term assets. It is greater in value than working capital, as it includes long-term assets in its equation.

How do you track working and invested capital through the Qoyod website?

When it comes to tracking working and invested capital through Qoyod, there are several main points that you must take into consideration, which are as follows:

Determine current assets.

You must accurately identify which assets are your working capital. This includes cash, accounts payable, inventory, and any other assets that can be converted into cash within a short period of time. You can therefore use accounting software to record and categorize these assets clearly and in detail.

Track cash flows.

Tracking cash flows is crucial to monitoring working and invested capital, as you must carefully monitor income and expenses and identify the various sources of financing that contribute to working capital, whether from your sales or from external financing, such as loans. The Qoyod accounting program can help you generate financial reports that show incoming and outgoing cash and its distribution among various current assets.

Debt and receivables management

Tracking debts and receivables is an important part of monitoring working capital, so you must ensure that you carefully monitor the accounts payable and receivable and follow up on credit policies and their impact on the liquidity of working capital. It is worth noting that this program can help you track and manage customer and supplier accounts and issue periodic reports to analyze debts owed and payments received.

Financial ratio analysis

Financial ratio analysis is a powerful tool for tracking working and invested capital, so you must follow and analyze important financial ratios, such as the cash conversion ratio, the liquidity ratio, and the quick settlement ratio. And do not forget that the Qoyod program can generate these ratios and present them in a visual and understandable way to help you make the right financial decisions.

How is working capital calculated?

Working capital can be calculated using the following equation:

Working capital = current assets (receivables + inventory) minus current liabilities (debts + tax liabilities + trade payables + debts other than financial).

Practical examples of capital calculation

Net Working Capital (NWC)

Suppose we are tasked with calculating the invested capital (IC) of a company for the subsequent two-year period (2021–2022).

In 2021, the company achieved SAR 100 million in net revenues, which grew by 5.0% in the following year.

  • Net revenues 2021a = 100 million Saudi riyals.
  • Net revenues, 2022a = SAR 100 million x (1 + 5.0%) = SAR 105.
  • The company’s NOPAT margin in both periods remained constant at 25.0%.
  • Net operating profit after tax margin: 2021A and 2022 Multiply NOPAT margin by net revenue A = 25.0%.
  • By multiplying the NOPAT margin by the net revenue in the corresponding year, we can solve for the company’s NOPAT.
  • Net operating profit after tax (2021A) = 100 * 25.0% = 25 million riyals.
  • Net operating profit after tax (2022A) = 105 * 25.0% = 26.
  • During the corresponding year, we can solve the company’s NOPAT.
  • The company’s minimum cash balance, i.e., the cash required to finance daily operating activities, is 2.0% of revenues.
  • Minimum cash balance = 2.0% x 100 million riyals = 2.0 million riyals.
  • Minimum cash balance = 2.0% x 105 million riyals = 2.1 million riyals.

The balances of operating working capital items are as follows:.

Running current assets 

Accounts receivable, 2021a = 50 million riyals.

Accounts receivable, 2022a = 60 million riyals.

Inventory 2021 A = 10 million riyals.

Inventory 2022a = 12 million riyals.

Running current liabilities

Accounts payable 2021 A = 34 million riyals.

Accounts payable, 2022a = 38 million riyals.

Accrued expenses in 2021 are 6 million riyals.

Accrued expenses, 2022a = 8 million riyals.

In short, the company’s net working capital amounts to 22 million riyals and 28 million riyals in 2021 and 2022, respectively.

Net working capital (NWC), 2021A = 62 million riyals minus 40 million riyals = 22 million riyals.

Net working capital (NWC), 2022a = 74 million riyals; 46 million riyals = 28 million riyals.

Invested capital

On the other hand, the final balance of equipment and supplies reached 130 million riyals and 140 million riyals in the same two-year time frame.

Net equipment and fittings

  • Net equipment and supplies, 2021A = 130 million riyals.
  • Net equipment and supplies, 2021A = 140 million riyals.

The sum of our company’s net working capital and net property and equipment is the invested capital for each year, which amounts to 152 million riyals, then 168 million riyals in the following year.

Invested capital (IC)

  • Invested capital (IC), 2021a = 22 million riyals + 130 million riyals = 152 million riyals.
  • Invested capital (IC), 2022a = 28 million riyals + 140 million riyals = 168 million riyals.

Return on invested capital (ROIC)

In the next part of our exercise, we will calculate the return on investment (ROIC) for our company using the numbers identified in the previous section.

First, we must calculate the average invested capital from 2021 to 2022, which is 160 million riyals.

  • Average invested capital (IC) from 2021a to 2022a = (152 million riyals + 168 million riyals) ÷ 2 = 160 million riyals.
  • The company achieved 26 million riyals from NOPAT during the year 2022, that is, from the end of the fiscal year 2021 to the end of 2022.
  • Then, the average invested capital (IC) balance is used to match the timing of the numerator and denominator.

The ROIC for our hypothetical company is 16.4%, which we arrived at by dividing the NOPAT by the average invested capital (IC).

  • Return on invested capital (ROIC) = 26 million riyals ÷ 160 million riyals = 16.4%.

What is the difference between working capital and equity?

Working capital and equity are important concepts in accounting and finance, and although they relate to assets and liabilities in businesses, each of them has its own focus and use, and the difference between them can be summarized as follows:

Working capital 

It is a concept that refers to the difference between short-term assets (such as cash, inventory, and accounts receivable) and current liabilities (such as business debt, wages, and taxes owed) and is an indicator of a company’s current ability to meet its short-term financial obligations.

Managing working capital effectively means maintaining an appropriate balance between assets and liabilities to ensure the sustainability of the business and avoid financial problems.


It expresses the difference in value between assets and liabilities in general. It represents the net value of ownership owned by shareholders in the company and includes a wide range of elements, such as contributed capital, reserves, and accumulated profits (or accumulated losses).

It is worth noting that it reflects the company’s ability to generate a profit and increase the value of the original contribution.

Steps to create a registration for adding capital via the Qoyod website 

In order for you to be able to create a capital addition entry through the Qoyod website, all you have to do is follow the following steps:

  • Starting from the Manual Accounting menu: You must start by going to the “Manual Accounting Entries” section from the drop-down menu on the Qoyod website.
  • Create a new entry: From there, you can click on the “Create Manual Entry” icon to start creating a new entry to add capital.
  • Filling out the entry details: On the new page, you will see a set of fields that must be filled out, the most important of which are: entry description, date, and account.
  • Add other accounts (if any): If there are other accounts associated with this entry, you can click “Add more” to add them.
  • Save the entry: After ensuring that all the entered data is correct, click “Save” to complete the process of creating the new entry.


We find that working and invested capital constitute two basic pillars in the success of any institution or organization, as working capital is like the living blood that runs through the veins of the business and gives companies the ability to finance their daily activities and expand their business. While invested capital represents one of the main factors that affect the company’s ability to implement growth and investment strategies, The greater the invested capital, the greater the company’s chances of expanding its activity and achieving higher profits. Moreover, it is an important indicator of the financial strength and confidence in the company, as it can affect its credit rating and its ability to obtain additional financing from external parties.

It is necessary for organizations to have a deep understanding of the importance of working and invested capital, so they must use an effective accounting program, such as Qoyod, and the program offers all its clients: electronic invoice systems, as well as point-of-sale systems, stores, customers, and so forth.

Dear reader, after knowing the difference between working and invested capital, try Qoyod now for free for 14 days, and you will not regret it, as it is an accounting program preferred by small and medium enterprises.

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